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南加州教育|托福阅读十大题型之总结题

作者: 来源: 日期:2018/1/9 11:06:48 人气:1710

板块一:考情分析

Prose summary,是无数童鞋的心头噩梦。究其为何,原因有二

其一:Prose Summary 题型天生不讨巧,从来都是在一场战役(一篇文章)行将结束时出现,而且还针对全文出题。有些同学往往准备不足,加之临场紧张,到最后往往文章中写了些啥全部忘得一干二净。而面对这种题目,定位相对来讲往往也就意味着从头把文章再看一遍,耗时又费力,极为不招人待见。

其二:从Prose Summary的出题标准来看,Prose Summary是希望你选出符合文章内容的三个选项,当然,这个选项,并非说只要是符合文章的,正确的就行。在江湖英雄帖(OG)中,对于Prose Summary的描述是这样的:“These items measure your ability to understand and recognize the major ideas and the relative importance of information in a passage.”,你不妨注意一下major ideas这个词,翻译成我们de 语言来说,就是主要观点或者是重要信息。但是,很多同学,入行不久,功夫不深,往往是细节和主观点傻傻分不清楚。

综上,Prose Summary让我们耗时又费力。然而,俗话说,擒贼先擒王,更不要说这个BOSS是个外强中干的菜鸟,稍加注意,不但能逢凶化吉,反而在战场上作用巨大。下面我们就开始吧!Go!!!!

板块二:解题策略

二、庖丁解牛——prose summary 破题五法

1. 秘技1——巧用黑体字

相信,你可能还没注意到过prose summary选项前的那一行黑体字吧,这行黑体字,作用又是什么呢?我们不妨来继续看看:

现在,拿出自己手里的任何一套TPO,我们都会在题目上的Direction看到这样的一行字:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below。用汉人的话说,brief summary,也就是全文的简单总结。换而言之,文章大概写了什么内容,出题人已经给你总结出来了。加上,这篇文章,让你选择出来的又是符合文章的重要信息,所以,有了它,我们就对全文的内容,已经略知一二了。、

2. 秘技2——巧用黑体字题眼定选项

     刚才我们谈到,黑体字是对全文的概括总结。加上我们在之前的时候,就已经给大家分析过,选项的内容,也是必须要选出全文的重要信息和主观点。所以,自然说明一点,选项是必须要符合黑体字的说明的,但是要怎么选出符合黑体字的选项呢?且听选题的四个正确标准:

其一:黑体字都是有题眼的,也就是题目中的重要信息,严格上说,我们会有三种类型的黑体字:

 类型一:黑体字中含有量词+名词的,此时量词+名词为题眼(但是题眼此时不是很重要,知道这种题眼的应对方法就好)

u类型二:黑体字的主干结构为主系表结构的,此时题眼为表语,也就是题干中的形容词。

类型三:黑体字的主干结构为主谓宾的,此时题眼为谓语,如果谓语倾向不够明显(比较简单的动词,比如give),此时,结合宾语一起解题,共同作为题眼。

其二:各种题眼,有各自的应对方法,详细如下:

类型一, 这种类型的黑体字告诉你,文章一定是分类文章,找选项找对于某个类别的简单描述就好(也就是,只说这个类别是什么,而不说有多少年,等等)

类型二,类型三,这个时候,在挑出的题眼上问两个问题,why, how, 选的选项是必须要能够回答这两个问题的,不能,就应该是错误答案,可以排除(当然,有时候不符合,可能符合我们一会儿说的第三个标准,此时就要按照第三个标准来选了)

例:OG—Origin of Cetacean

黑体字:This passage discusses fossils that help to explain the likely origins of cetaceans—whales, porpoises, and dolphins.

题眼:explain+ origin,也就是说,问两个问题,为什么可以解释起源,和如何解释起源

选项1:Recent discoveries of fossils have helped to show the link between landmammals and cetaceans. (最近的关于化石的研究显示出了陆地哺乳动物和鲸类的关系),想想,符合原则吗?很显然符合,这个是不是说明了,为什么可以解释起源呢?所以选上。

选项2:The discovery of Ambulocetus natans provided evidence for a whale that lived both on land and at sea.(A的出现,证明了鲸类曾经生活在陆地和海洋),符合吗?也符合,这个是不是也是解释的why?

选项3:The skeleton of Basilosaurus was found in what had been the Tethys Sea, an area rich in fossil evidence.(B的骨架被发现的地方曾经是海洋,一个到处都有化石的地方…)符合吗?这就不符合了。很显然,为什么能解释鲸的起源,这里是没有说清楚的,B在哪里发现,和B为什么能够说明鲸的起源,毫无关系,排除。

选项4:Pakicetus is the oldest fossil whale yet to be found.(P是迄今为止最老的鲸类化石),符合吗?同样不符合,因为为什么可以解释,或者是怎么解释,和什么是最老的化石,毫无关系,排除。

选项5:Fossils thought to be transitional forms between walking mammals and swimming whales were found.((找到的)化石被认为是一种在从陆生动物进化到鲸类期间的动物遗留下的。)符合吗?符合,因为这是不是解释了为什么科学家可以解释鲸类的起源呢?所以也选上。

选项6:Ambulocetus' hind legs were used for propulsion (推进,推动力)in the water.(A的后腿用于在水中前进), 符合吗?也不符合,因为A的后腿用来干嘛,跟解释起源也是毫无关系的啊,所以排除了。

综上,答案为1,2,5

3. 秘技3——单独成选项的deficiency和influence,一定要选。

所谓的单独成选项,意思是说在六个选项中,只有一个选项是deficiency(缺陷),或者是只有一个选项是influence的,这种情况,就要选上。而,如果不是只有一个,有两个deficiency,或者是两个influence,此时就不能选了,根据具体情况而定。(注,influence和deficiency,不会交集,也就是说,如果选项中,有一个deficiency+一个influence, 两个都选。)

4. 秘技4——两个选项描述对象一致,选概括的笼统和全面的那一个。

5. 秘技5——巧排干扰项(不是完全绝对,但是有一定的参考性)。

     出现以下的词的,多为干扰项:

 其一:出现数字的,多为干扰项(数字多是举例,为细节)

 其二:出现最高级,比较级的,多为干扰项(比较多是支持信息,为某个重要信息起支持作用,不会是重要信息)

其三:出现scientists, experiment的,多为干扰项(科学家说了什么,做了什么实验,多为支持信息)

板块三:实战教学

Prose Summary Questions:

These items measure your ability to understand and recognize the major ideas and the relative importance of information in a passage. You will be asked to select the major ideas in the passage by distinguishing them from minor ideas or ideas that are not in the passage. The correct answer choice will synthesize major ideas in the passage. Because the correct answer represents a synthesis of ideas, it will not match any particular sentence from the passage. To select the correct answer, you will need to create a mental framework to organize and remember major ideas and other important information. Understanding the relative importance of information in a passage is critical to this ability.

——P50-51 from OG 3rd edition

“These items measure your ability to understand and recognize the major ideas and the relative importance of information in a passage.” 从这句话中,我们能看出Prose summary题型要求我们总结整篇文章的主要观点和相对重要的信息。

我们先对“相对重要的信息”做一下分析。一篇托福阅读文章大约700单词左右,一共会出14道题目。其中的13题可以认为是细节题,而第14题一般为Prose summary(还有一种是Fill in a Table Questions, 比较少见)。那么,前面的13道题会出在文章中的什么地方呢?通过多篇文章的比对,我们可以发现这些题目多数集中在文章的重要信息处。那么这对我们做最后一题有什么帮助呢?我们这样来想——既然文章中重要的地方都出题了,那么我们也可以认为出题的地方都是文章中的重要内容。因此,我们做Prose summary的第一种方法就出现了——回忆之前出过的题。我们可以认为,如果Prose summary的某个选项和前面13道题中的某道题目描述的含义基本相同,那么这个选项极有可能就是正确答案。我们来看两道例题:

例一:TPO15 P1 Q14

The leatherback turtle uses a countercurrent exchange system in order to keep the flippers from drawing heat away from the rest of the body.

这个选项重复了第8题;

The leatherback turtle is able to maintain body heat through sheer size.

这个选项重复了第5题的出题句;

Leatherbacks have an insulating layer that can be considered the reptilian version of blubber.

这个选项重复了第4题的出题点。

例二:TPO14 P1 Q13

Children may not be able to interpret exaggerated claims made by advertisers or understand the disclaimers used to offset claims.

这个选项重复了第3、4题;

Although the use of celebrities is not necessarily effective in advertisements aimed at children, there is evidence that host selling can positively affect their views of a product.

这个选项对应第9、10题;

The use of fantasy is especially common in advertisements for children, but children may not be able to distinguish fantasy from reality.

这个选项实际就是第12题的再现。

通过对以上两篇文章的分析,我们发现Prose summary的正确选项基本是重复前面出过的题目。当然,这也不是特别绝对的有些Prose summary的题目只有两个选项对应了前面的某几道题。但是,通过这个方法,我们一般能保证在2分里面至少取得1分。

好的 ,我们继续!Go!!!

Much of the ground is actually saturated with water.

○1.Sediments that hold water were spread by glaciers and are still spread by rivers and streams.

○2.Water is stored underground in beds of loose sand and gravel or in cemented sediment.

○3.The size of a saturated rock’s pores determines how much water it will retain when the rock is put in a dry place.

○4.Groundwater often remains underground for a long time before it emerges again.

○5.Like sandstone, basalt is a crystalline rock that is very porous.

○6.Beds of unconsolidated sediments are typically located at inland sites that were once underwater.

例2(T1R2Q14):

Anthropologists have developed many theories to help understand why and how theater originated.

○1.The presence of theater in almost all societies is thought to have occurred because early  story tellers traveled to different groups to tell their stories.

○2.Many theorists believe that theater arises when societies act out myths to preserve social  well-being.

○3.The more sophisticated societies became, the better they could influence desirable occurrences through ritualized theater.

○4.Some theories of theater development focus on how theater was used by group leaders to group leaders govern other members of society.

○5.Theater may have come from pleasure humans receive from storytelling and moving rhythmically.

○6.The human capacities for imitation and fantasy are considered possible reasons why societies develop theater.

At the timberline, whether upper or lower, there is a profound change in the growth of trees and other plants.

○1.Birch is one of the few species of tree that can survive in the extreme environments of the upper timberline.

○2.There is no agreement among scientists as to exactly why plant growth is sharply different above and below the upper timberline.

○3.The temperature at the upper timberline is probably more important in preventing tree growth than factors such as the amount of snowfall or the force of winds.

○4.The geographical location of an upper timberline has an impact on both the types of trees found there and their physical characteristics.

○5.High levels of ultraviolet light most likely play a greater role in determining tree growth at the upper timberline than do grazing animals such as the ibex.

○6.Despite being adjacent to the timberline, the alpine tundra is an area where certain kinds of low trees can endure high winds and very low temperatures.



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